There are four Steps in the LAMPS Model
1.1 Global and National Issues and Concerns:
Education is a critical component which contributes extensively in the human development indices. The most effective means of achieving sustainable global development is solely quality and equitable education. There is a GLOBAL DEMAND & PRIORITY in developing and under developed countries to ensurea quality and inclusive education in the school education. This helps in realizingNo Ones Left Behind campaign for equitable society adopted underGlobal Goals – 2030 (SDGs).Specifically SDG-4 focuses on Quality and Inclusive Education for all, so that no ones left behind in the society and it has been unanimously accepted by global community and has got due space in the SDGs documents accepted by 193 countries. Global resources are also allocated to focus on quality and inclusive education to ensure all round development of children across the globeand ensure participation of all in the development processes.
Similarly, in our country there are four major key policies and theirfacilitators for school education to respond to needs of school education across the country and those areSamagraShikshaAbhiyan (in pilot stage)/ServaShikshaAbhiyan, RTE Act 2009, Guideline and Priority of MHRD/NITI Ayog aligning SDGs and now Draft New Education Policy–2019 which are going to shape the national education priority and intervention strategies for coming 30-40 years. All four policies/Acts/facilitatorshave unanimously agreed to following five areas which are need of our country, if we want to put our nationamongst one of the leading country on knowledge front in coming 30 to 40 years. Those major areas are:
- Quality and Inclusive Education
- Cultural Footing and looking at the sky/Scientific knowledge
- Digitalisation of education
- Vocational Oriented education
- Learning appropriation for holistic development of children of our country.
These are the major focus areas but we have some grassroots level reality also. Unless we address all in integrity, we will not be able to promote above mentioned five components in the school education system. Let us have a brief understanding of those realities by specific reference to proposed district.
1.2 Local issues/Problems
LEADS intervention area i.e. Khunti district is completely tribal dominated area and more than 95% rural population are Munda Tribes and as per our experience more process based intervention will work effectively and hence LEADS has shaped LAMPS model of interventionaccordingly. The literacy rate of Jharkhand is 67.63% ( out of which M-78.45% and F-56.21% ). In Khuntiover all literacy rate is 63.86 (M-74.08% and F-53.69%) which shows poor status of Khuntidistrict in education. There are some major issues and challenges which need tobe highlighted here for better clarity of context:
- Inadequate teachers having poor academic and pedagogical knowledge are teaching in schools leading to poor school education.
- Owing to the significant gender gaps in terms of literacy rate , girls education needs to be addressed and promoted
- One of the concerns of the area is high rate of dropout of students(Regular attendance is 65% of total enrolment). This may be attributed to apathy of the community towards formal education system. An appropriate learning environment followed by vocational orientation will address this challenge.
- Teachers, Children, PRIs and Parents all are poorly sensitised and mobilised about importance of school education and various component of RTE Act 2009 which is made for school education.
- Poor appropriate learning environmentboth at Anganwadi level and Schools level although 85% of the brain of a child developed by the age of 6 to 7 years (Ref-Draft NEP 2019)
- Jharkhand is one of the largest nutrition deficit state which hampersappropriate learning of the children.
- Context based appropriate learning teaching materials are still either lacking or not in use.
- SMC has major roles in running school and integrating their efforts for proper functioning of Schools. But since they are least aware, they are not able to play their roles effectively.
- Poor digital academic interface with the children although we are going through the digital era.
- WASH in Schools are not up to the mark in various schools inspite of large mobilisation and investment.
Considering all above mentioned global, national, state and local level needs,issues and priorities LEADS has developed a LEARNING APPROPRIATION AND MAPPING PROGRESS IN SCHOOLS (LAMPS) model of intervention which relates all priorities with the national RTE Acts and Policy and is also relevant in local context.
2. Describing LAMPS and Its Focus Areas
2.1 LAMPS Model
Foote Note: LEADS has TrgModule for Teachers, SMC Members, BalSansad and Community
LAMPSmodel basically focuses on all round development of children. It facilitates logical and relevant learning as per context and mapping the progress periodically for evaluation and there by corrective measures for further improvement. LAMPS Makes the System Sensitive and Provides Inputs to School Education.It connects RTE Act 2009, SDG-4 and core component of draft New Education Policy and SamagraShikshaAbhiyan. To promote the holistic development of children as a process we define the core elements which need to mobilise for better ambience building infavour of quality and inclusive education of children. Those core focus areas are as follows:
- Child Centric:This model focuses on Quality and Inclusive Educationapproach having pedagogical base and joyful learning with various extracurricular activities relevant for tribal area.The importance of pedagogy is pivotal in the learning process. Solid teaching practices are importantfor all children, but they are essential if vulnerable learners are to achieve positive learning outcomes.
- Community Centric:This model focuses on Participatory Planning, Budgeting, Implementation and Monitoring and further Corrective Measures involving communities (SMC, Gram Sabha, PRIs, BalSansadetc)
- Teacher Centric:This model focuses on Enriching Teachersondiverse contentsand pedagogical approach for teaching children with diverse knowledge and base of learning appropriation. This ensures joyful learning and efficient classroom transactions
- Infrastructure Centric: This model focuses on Qualitatively Functional Infrastructure in the school premises of schools by involving all stakeholders.
- Stakeholders Centric: This model focuses on ensuring Involvement and ownership of all stakeholders for supporting children and their education.
Digital Tools like AKVO for mapping of learning/monitoring and digital equipments like tab, computer and internet support will be used for making digital classrooms for enhancing classrooms transactions and interface of children with new world of technology.
If all above mentioned areas are properly facilitated then quality education can be ensured in the given context. LAMPS mainly respond to the local needs based in process for sustainability of impacts.
3. Tools: SMC and Formulation of SDP (Ref: Article 21 of RTE Act 2009):
School Development Planis the integral part of RTE Act 2009 and well articulated under Article 21 of the Act. This plan is primarily made for 3 years and every year Annual Action Plan is made by School Management Committee having 16 members (12 Parents whose children are studying in the school, 1 BalSansad, 1 PRI member, 2 Teachers). There is a four days involvement prog schedule developed by LEADS for Schools Development Plan by involving stakeholders. SDP covers all issues and concerns of school for its development keeping children as its central objects. Action plan is made considering financialand non financial requirement of schools. Non financialrequirements are addressed by community, Gram Sabha and Financial Requirementsand concerns are kept in budget heads and requested to various stakeholders like Govt, PRIs,Line Departments, MLA/MP Funds and in this way schools becomes a resourceful modelwhich provide joyful learning to each children irrespective of caste, creed, religion, sex, physical status etc.
Following 9 Steps are involved in the whole SDP Formulation and Its Implementation: These 9 steps of formulating SDP create a positive participatory culture in perceiving their roles and responsibility deeply and facilitating schools without solely dependency on Govt.
- Step I: Primary Interface and building association within the community.
- Step II: School Resource Mapping and stakeholders mapping
- Step III: Analysis of the school present situation considering quality and inclusive education
- Step IV: Problem Identification & Prioritization of the problem to integrate it in Action Plan
- Step V:Our Model Govt Schools: An Interaction initiated in the community for its better understanding: (Students, Teachers, SMC, School Infrastructure)
- Step VI: A proposal for responding prioritised problems and to create a model school
- Step VII: Formulation of School Development plan with one year action plan defining roles and responsibilities of each stakeholders.
- Step VIII: Implementing the Plan by involving all stakeholders
- Step IX: Monitoring of School Development Plan and Further plan customisation.
(SDP incorporates school wise problems and response to those problems. So, SDP will be school based and it may differ from school to school. This is the uniqueness of this intervention because each issue of the schools are planned and addressed in given time frame)
LEADS has developed exercises on each step to involve communities in the whole process actively and qualitatively and come out with a implementable School Development Plan as mandated in RTE Act 2009.
When the processes are followed properly we can have following outcomes ate the field level an some of those outcomes are as follows.
4. Achieving Outcomes
- Enrolment and Retention rate goes up to 100% and 85% respectively as all stakeholders are involved in mobilising children and supporting them in the academic process mainly SMC and PRIs.
- Learning Level goes Up with Quality: Because of regularisation of teachers and children in schools and enhancing quality interaction between teachers and children, involving children in various curricular activities, the overall development and learning level goes Up. Results are gradually getting better which can be checked with National Achievements Survey Report of those schools.
- Digital Interface: Children are having interface with digital mode of education as learning monitoring and classroom transactions based on digital applications are introduced.
- Diverse leaning and Promotion of children in Different Capacity: Children are introduced to various extracurricular activities and evaluated accordingly, so they get promotion as per their capacity and interest
- Life skill are promoted: Life skill which are needs of the hour related to saving habits of children like environment, agri activities, saving of trees, saving common properties, sense of cooperation, sense of support to others will be promoted
- Girls and Dibyangjan are Part of the Process: Community includes everybody in its plan so its inclusive in all aspects as one of the area of discussion and decision is inclusion of excluded in the development plan.
- The proposed model promotes digitalisation of class-rooms, this will have positive impact on students. The impact is more when the things are digitally explained to the students.
- Teacher’s capacity is enhanced as requirement is reflected in the SDP. Teacher’s quality enhancement on contents and pedagogies takes place, which lead to quality interaction between teachers and students.
- Teachers focus and incorporate various activities in teaching methodology/use of TLM and over all day plan of schools including outdoor and indoor games.
- Community mobilized local teachers in case of an acute crisis of teachers in any school to meet the urgent need of schools.
4.3 Communities (SMCs + PRIs + Communities)
- SMC, PRIs and Gram Sabhas becomes an activeand responsive towards education of their children and plays roles as owner in schools and all support systems are taken care off by them which creates learning ambience.
- School Development Plan is implemented, resources are used properly as per need and all financialand non financial activities are implemented to the extent of 80% of its Action Plan.
- Community take charge of schools and hence impacts sustained
4.4 Stakeholders(BRP,CRP, PRIs Members, SMC members, BEEO, Gram Sabhas, Retd Teachers of the village etc.)
- Due to ownership of people, Stakeholders share their energy and resources to make the school a place for quality learning
- All infrastructures are Functional which is required as per norms of Water Sanitation and Hygiene in Schools (WASH in Schools) criteria. It’s complimentary for quality education.