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Goat Farming

29.61% of Jharkhand’s area is under forest.  52% of the total geographical area is cultivable land, but only 43% of it is net sown area. Nearly 76% of the population is rural and incidence of poverty is 46%, however 60% of the schedule caste and schedule tribes are still below poverty line. The agricultural systems are primarily ren-fed and hence allied sectors like – poultry, raring goats, rearing pigs needs promotion as an additional source of livelihood.

Every year 30-40% goats are slaughtered for meat but the population is on a rise. Rearing of goats is popular in different parts of our country and it is followed by all casts and creeds. 35-38% of the total meat production is constituted by goat farmers. Similarly, they constitute 3-4% of ilk production as well.

Rearing goats at Low Cost – Principles

In Jharkhand, goats are reared primarily for meat. From business perspective, a goat gets pregnant thrice in a span of two years and usually gives birth to 2-3 offspring. Goats provide milk and meat and even its hairs are used. Goats primarily eat grass and leaves and hence expenses on their nutrition are very low.

Goat Rearing- First 6 months

  • A goat’s offspring shall be fed its mother’s milk with 15-20 minutes of its birth, so that it can develop immunity. The offspring shall be left with its mother for first 6-7 days.The kid shall be given 0.5-1lakh unit vitamin injection and on the third day of it’s birth it shall be given Infereon injection
  • The goat being reared for milk production, shall be separated from it’s kid right after its birth.

Goat Shed Construction

  • For making goat shed complete illumination shall be stressed upon. It shall be ensured that other animals don’t enter he goat shed anytime. Goat rearing can be done both in the rural as well as urban regions.
  • There shall be enough space for the movement of the goat within the shed. 10-12 square feet area would be enough for goat and its kids.
  • The goat’s shed shall be illuminated with sun’s light for at least 3-4 hours, so that kids can grow steadily.
  • For goat’s urination, arrangement shall be made.
  • Goat’s shed shall be at an elevated plane of at least 1-1.5 feet height.

Goat’s Nutrition:

For goat’s rearing one gets good food at relatively cheaper rates. Grass. Green leaves, household leftover foods, etc. are cheap. Kids can be fed with fresh leaves. Everyday goats are left for grazing for 6-7 hours. Usually a goat has a diet of 4-5 kg of vegetation.

Goat’s Safety

When goats are left for grazing there shall be provision for their safety or else wild animals can prey on them. Therefore, 1-2 persons shall be employed for their safety. Bucks shall be specially monitored as it is usually more active in open spaces. It getting strayed away is common. Milking nannies shall be fed with green grasses to ensure greater milk production.

Diseases in goats and their prevention

Pneumonia: Offspring and kids are more prone to it. It is a common disease in goats and hence the veterinary shall be contacted.

Foot and Mouth Disease: It is a communicable disease which infects mouth and tongue. The symptoms to this disease are: high fever, cough from mouth. If any of the goats get infected from it, it shall be quarantined.

Chickenpox:It is a communicable disease. Once infected the goats is unable to eat. The goats infected from it shall be quarantined and a veterinarian shall be contacted at the earliest.

Investment- Income Structure
DetailsCost
Production Material400
Kids-510000
Nutrition1200
Immunization1200
Transportation1600
Others1200
Total15600
Production-5X20 Kg x 600/60000
Total Income44400

1600 Families have adopted this model and have aided their livelihood with amounts from Rs. 40,000-50,000 annually.

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